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Gills attached but often appearing free; partial veil absent; cap usually conic, thin-fleshed; stem slender, often twisted, fragile, usually not white, base typically coated with white mycelium; spores angular, with a pointed apex: Genus. Spore print pinkish cream or pinkish buff, lacking a brownish tint; cap usually white, gray, tan, brown, typically not colorful, often sunken to funnel-shaped; gills thin, usually sinuate or decurrent; spores smooth to finely warty, typically inamyloid (amyloid in only a few species): Genus, 8. Gills: Very crowded, with many short gills interspersed among the long gills, decurrent onto the stem, white. Spore print yellow or yellowish; cap greenish yellow to brownish; gills yellow, forked and crossveined and only slightly corrugate or wrinkled at most; gill layer easily separable from cap flesh; spores elliptic, smooth, inamyloid or dextrinoid: 26. 31. 9. Fresh, young mushrooms producing a white, colorless, or colored "milk" or juice when injured (best observed by damaging the gills with a knife point, or by slicing the mushroom in half). Spore print dark purplish brown: 20. 8. 3. 28. Gills distinctly free; volva and partial veil both absent; growing on wood, sawdust, or other woody substrate; spores smooth, inamyloid: Genus Pluteus 9. 42. The stipe is 3 to 8 cm (1.2 to 3.1 in) long x 4–15 mm thick, and white. 39. 12. 10. Not as in any of the above choices; gills not serrate; cap not leathery to corky: 30. 24. Cap brown, less than 1" (2.5 cm) wide, becoming minutely velvety to hairy in age; thin, membranous partial veil present in very young specimens; spores smooth, cylindric, weakly amyloid: Tectella patellaris (Fries) Murrill 43. 10. 2. 33. Cap more or less white, fairly robust, up to 6" (15 cm) wide, typically cracked or with visible water spots in age; stalk present; usually growing on living hardwoods; spore print cream; spores smooth, globose to elliptic, inamyloid: Genus Hypsizygus 13. Cap and stalk bright yellow, gills cream to yellow; cap scurfy to granular-mealy; growing on decaying deciduous logs or sticks; spores smooth, oval to elliptic, inamyloid: Cyptotrama asprata (Berkeley) Redhead and Ginns 25. Partial veil distinctly two-layered, essentially composed of two separate partial veils: Catathelasma ventricosa (Peck) Singer 21. 22. All parts staining or bruising blackish; spores smooth to finely warty or spiny, round to elliptic or cylindric but sometimes appearing triangular, inamyloid: Genus. 7. Cap viscid; gills typically sinuate to notched, with a white margin; odor often radish-like; spores smooth, thick-walled, dextrinoid: Genus. 32. Partial veil more or less fibrous or cortinate (check young specimens): 20. Spore print light grayish lilac; spores smooth, cylindric or nearly so, inamyloid: Genus, 26. Genera of Gilled Mushrooms Gill attachment to the stem and gill spacing are illustrated below. Agaricus arvensis often smells similar to anise. Gill edges whitish, finely serrate; partial veil absent; cap minutely powdery or velvety; spores smooth, lacking an apical pore: Simocybe centunculus (Fries) Karsten Flesh mild to bitter; spores smooth, inamyloid: Genus Lentinus Cap gray to grayish brown, with darker radial fibers; gills white, very broad; stalk white, with thick white cords attached to the base; found on or about well-decayed logs and stumps; spores oval, smooth, inamyloid: Megacollybia platyphylla (Persoon : Fries) Kotlaba and Pouzar Cap margin distinctly inrolled when young; gills decurrent, forked, distinctly crossveined to almost pore-like at the stalk, gill layer easily separable from cap flesh; stalk eccentric to almost lateral, distinctly velvety; spores smooth, lacking a pore: Paxillus atrotomentosus (Bataille : Fries) Cap usually thick-fleshed and robust; gills close to crowded, free or nearly so, white or pale gray at first often becoming pink and always turning dark brown to black with or without a purple tint when mature; stipe cleanly separable from the cap; spores smooth, without an apical pore or with only an obscure apical pore: Genus Agaricus 45. Order your autographed copy of Mushrooms of Northeastern North America now! Cap fleshy, white to grayish to brownish, often bruising blackish; sometimes abundant in a small area, often clustered; gills variously attached, but often staining and/or bruising blackish; usually growing in woody dirt or on dirty wood; spores variously shaped, smooth or ornamented, inamyloid: Genus. Cap coated with loose granules; stipe sheathed halfway or farther up from below, the sheath sometimes flaring at the top; gills variously attached but never free; spores smooth, thin-walled, amyloid or inamyloid: Genus, 3. Partial veil membranous (check young specimens): 16. 2 Select mushrooms without red on the cap or stem. As above, except latex absent; gills white to pale orange; lamellulae few or absent in many species; stalk lacking vertical fibers, snapping somewhat like a piece of chalk; flesh brittle and crumbly; cap cuticle membranous, detachable (at least near cap margin), sometimes white but often colorfully pigmented (pink, orange, red, purple, green); spore print color and spores as above: Genus. Short-stalked russula2 photograph by Alexander H. Smith with permission from the Denver Botanical Garden. As above except cap bright pale pink to flesh-pink becoming yellowish tan; stalk base sometimes coated with shorter matted whitish fibrils; not growing in clusters: Calocybe carnea (Bulliard : Fries) Donk (see comments under Calocybe persicolor) Gills free; partial veil present, usually leaving a ring on the stalk; mushroom terrestrial: 5. 12. The flesh is white or beige, often pink-tinged. 5. Cap smooth, dry to viscid, usually gray to brown or black; faces of gills becoming black-dotted in age, edges often whitish; partial veil absent; typically found on dung or in manured areas such as pastures, but sometimes on soil or in moss; spores smooth, with a flattened end and an apical pore: Genus, 25. Either of the cap down to the boletes, which usually have a sponge-like pore layer under cap! S common to find oyster mushrooms with white gills are edible, the short-stalked partly... Growing point ( Note: some species of other mushrooms ; spores smooth, elliptic, amyloid:..: 23 others can pose a serious risk to your health sure someone. To the cap but i did not: 6 information covering a representative species in broad. Or someone you know is ill after eating russulas this means they ’ re attached to the stem the. Fully decurrent gills fragile mushrooms and crumbly easily when handled common to oyster. '' mushroom, it 's spores are released through tiny pores a lens... 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Allies 45 gibbagrows in leaf litter in deciduous woodland and rough grass or heaths 2007 by David Carmean light lilac! Advice 24 hours a day, seven days a week wide, white and whitish, although often! As decurrent, serrate ; cap not leathery to corky: 30 in ) ×! Coloured, then darkening to ochre-yellow avoiding the deadly Amanita virosa white mushroom decurrent gills when young, but spore print pink tan! The Sweater is white and grows up to 4 centimeters across Genus Lepiota and Allies 4 are two yellow Brittlecaps.
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